Despite most individuals having a general idea of what the two terms mean, a much deeper understanding of what they entail and their differences is important. The public sector comprises of all the government owned organizations, all agencies and state offices.
Hannah Arendt[ edit ] Hannah Arendt was one of the first scholars to propose that the regimes of Hitler and Stalin could be grouped in the same political category. Not all totalitarian movements succeed in creating totalitarian governments once they gain power.
European imperialism of the nineteenth century also paved the way for totalitarianism, by legitimizing the concept of endless expansion. Their target audience did not have to be persuaded to despise the other parties or the democratic system, because it consisted of people who already despised mainstream politics.
As a result, totalitarian movements were free to use violence and terror against their opponents without fear that this might alienate their own supporters. Indoctrination consists of the message that a totalitarian government promotes internally, to the members of the ruling party and that segment of the population which supports the government.
Propaganda consists of the message that a totalitarian government seeks to promote in the outside world, and also among those parts of its own society which may not support the government.
According to Arendt, totalitarian governments did not merely use these appeals to supposed scientific laws as propaganda to manipulate others.
Rather, totalitarian leaders like Hitler and Stalin genuinely believed that they were acting in accordance with immutable natural laws, to such an extent that they were willing to sacrifice the self-interest of their regimes for the sake of enacting those supposed laws.
The totalitarian leader does not rise to power by personally using violence or through any special organizational skills, but rather by controlling appointments of personnel within the party, so that all other prominent party members owe their positions to him.
Even when the leader is not particularly competent and the members of his inner circle are aware of his deficiencies, they remain committed to him out of fear that without him the entire power structure would collapse. According to Arendt, totalitarian governments must be constantly fighting enemies in order to survive.
This explains their apparently irrational behavior, for example when Hitler continued to make territorial demands even after he was offered everything he asked for in the Munich Agreementor when Stalin unleashed the Great Terror despite the fact that he faced no significant internal opposition.
Slaves were abused and killed for the sake of profit; concentration camp inmates were abused and killed because a totalitarian government needed to justify its existence.
That is to say, most of the inmates had not actually committed any action against the regime. Totalitarian systems and autocracies[ edit ] The totalitarian paradigm in the comparative study of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union was further developed by Carl Friedrich and Zbigniew Brzezinskiwho wrote extensively on this topic both individually and in collaboration.
In particular, it is distinguished by a reliance on modern technology and mass legitimation. Friedrich and Brzezinski argue that Nazism and Stalinism are not only similar to each other, but also represent a continuation or a return to the tradition of European absolute monarchy on certain levels.
|WordPress vs Joomla vs Drupal – The Big CMS Comparison||But that is it. This is the only similarity.|
|CMS Comparison: WordPress vs Joomla vs Drupal - WebsiteSetup||March Abstract The roles and responsibilities of public policing have been evolving for hundreds of years. Public policing practices originated from private citizens volunteering in their communities as watchmen during the evening hours.|
|Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism - Wikipedia||When I think of Barbados, my mind immediately conjures up images of glistening blue waters and fine white sand.|
|Reader Interactions||That way, you have a better idea of what you are dealing with.|
This depends in part on the personal character of different leaders, but Friedrich and Brzezinski believe that there is also an underlying political cycle, in which rising discontent leads to increased repression up to the point at which the opposition is eliminated, then controls are relaxed until the next time that popular dissatisfaction begins to grow.
Totalitarianism can only exist after the creation of modern technology, because such technology is essential for propagandafor surveillance of the population, and for the operation of a secret police. First, an official ideology that is supposed to be followed by all members of society, at least passively, and which promises to serve as a perfect guide towards some ultimate goal.
Second, a single political partycomposed of the most enthusiastic supporters of the official ideology, representing an elite group within society no more than 10 percent of the populationand organized along strictly regimented lines.
Fourth, a similar monopoly held by the party over the mass media and all technological forms of communication. The dictator, whether Stalin, Hitler or Mussolini, holds supreme power. Friedrich and Brzezinski explicitly reject the claim that the Party, or any other institution, could provide a significant counterweight to the power of the dictator in Nazism or Stalinism.
This is partly due to the way that totalitarian governments arise. They come about when a militant ideological movement seizes power, so the first leader of a totalitarian government is usually the ideologue who built the movement that seized power, and subsequent leaders try to emulate him.
Friedrich points out that neither the Nazi nor the Stalinist government ever established any official line of succession or any mechanism to decide who would replace the dictator after his death.
There could never be any heir apparent, because such an heir would have been a threat to the power of the dictator while he was alive. Totalitarian Party[ edit ] Friedrich and Brzezinski also identify key similarities between the Nazi and Stalinist political parties, which set them apart from other types of political parties.
Rather, they strictly tested potential members, in a manner similar to exclusive clubs, and often engaged in political purges of the membership, expelling large numbers of people from their ranks and sometimes arresting and executing those expelled, such as in the Great Purge or the Night of the Long Knives.
While both Nazism and Stalinism required party members to display such total loyalty in practice, they differed in the way they dealt with it in theory. Stalinism, meanwhile, denied that it did anything similar, and claimed instead to uphold democratic principles, with the Party Congress made up of elected delegates supposedly being the highest authority.
Thus, regardless of the differences in their underlying ideological claims, the Nazi and Stalinist parties were organized in practice along similar lines, with a rigid hierarchy and centralized leadership.
Friedrich and Brzezinski argue, in agreement with Arendt, that Nazi and Stalinist leaders really believed in their respective ideologies and did not merely use them as tools to gain power. Friedrich and Brzezinski also draw attention to the symbols used by Nazis and Stalinists to represent themselves.
According to Friedrich and Brzezinski, the most effective terror is invisible to the people it affects. They simply develop a habit of acting in a conformist manner and not questioning authority, without necessarily being aware that this is what they are doing.
Propaganda is then used to maintain this appearance of popular consent. Both Joseph Goebbels and Soviet propagandists sought to demonize their enemies and present a picture of a united people standing behind its leader to confront foreign threats.
In both cases there was no attempt to convey complex ideological nuances to the masses, with the message being instead about a simplistic struggle between good and evil. Both Nazi and Stalinist regimes produced two very different sets of propaganda — one for internal consumption and one for potential sympathizers in other countries.
And both regimes would sometimes radically change their propaganda line as they made peace with a former enemy or got into a war with a former ally. With no way for anyone to express criticism, the dictator has no way of knowing how much support he actually has among the general populace.Private Equity vs Venture Capital – Eye popping, is the only word that comes to my mind when I think of Private Equity and Venture Capital.
You will agree with me once you read the following statistics. A Realistically Chaotic War Film: Steven Spielberg's ‘Saving Private Ryan’ - ‘Saving Private Ryan’ a joint production from Paramount and DreamWorks pictures, directed by the superb Steven Spielberg, was awarded four academy awards for this film alone, in addition to winning an Oscar for best director of the year This lesson explores formal and informal economies by discussing the differences between capitalism, socialism, and the underground economy.
Key characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of. Dale Kintzel is an economist with the Office of Policy Research, Office of Retirement Policy, Office of Retirement and Disability Policy, Social Security Administration.
Health insurance in the United States is any program that helps pay for medical expenses, whether through privately purchased insurance, social insurance, or a social welfare program funded by the government.
Synonyms for this usage include "health coverage", "health care coverage", and "health benefits". In a more technical sense, the term "health insurance "is used to describe any form of. A number of authors have carried out comparisons of Nazism and Stalinism, in which they have considered the similarities and differences of the two ideologies and political systems, what relationship existed between the two regimes, and why both of them came to prominence at the same heartoftexashop.com the 20th century, the comparison of Stalinism .