Cohorts included in analysis of social mobility. Sample sizes reflect participants of European descent with available genetic and attainment data.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Many researchers, however, see SES indicators as interchangeable.
The primary aim of this study was to determine which measure of SES had the strongest impact on health-related quality of life. The SES variables were family income, Hollingshead Index occupational prestigeand highest parent educational attainment level. Correlations tested the relationship among the three SES indicators.
Regression-based modeling was used to calculate the strength of the association between SES measures and the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Conclusion Family income as an SES measure demonstrated the greatest fidelity with respect to health-related quality of life as measured by the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory across respondent groups and explained more of the variation compared to the Hollingshead Index or highest parental educational attainment.
Recent studies have also described the relationship between the specific effects of pediatric chronic disease in children and HRQOL.
Children and adolescents with chronic disease will often have a lower HRQOL as seen in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy [ 5 ], asthma [ 6 ], and heart disease [ 7 - 9 ]. There are a variety of SES indicators that often assess distinct dimensions of SES rather than measuring the same underlying construct [ 11 ].
Access to resources, skills capability and social relationships, and knowledge about health related issues all impact HRQOL. Unfortunately, many investigators find it difficult to ascertain which SES measures are valid, which can be applied to multiple outcomes, and which measure is the most effective with a specific condition.
In addition, many researchers know they must control for the affect of SES on their outcomes but see SES measures as interchangeable. Other investigators are uncomfortable asking questions about family income, relying instead on the Hollingshead Index, which many social science researchers find to be outdated and not useful [ 11 ].
Therefore, health care researchers would be best served by knowing the impact of each SES factor on health-related outcomes so that the true variation due to SES is not missed by employing a weaker SES measure.
Given that critical health-related outcomes such as HRQOL are known to be sensitive to SES influences coupled with the fact that congenital heart disease CHD is an exemplar chronic condition, results from a study that addresses these two elements together can potentially inform researchers about SES measures that can be generalizable to the pediatric population that is experiencing chronic health conditions.
Jun 01, · Groups and individuals differ in societal position by the amount and type of resources held, be these economic, social or political. Individuals and groups in differing socioeconomic strata are known to have disparate health outcomes, with those in the most disadvantaged groups at . socio-economic class. Thesaurus. Definitions of socio-economic class. 1. n people having the same social, economic, or educational status. Synonyms: class, social class, stratum Examples: Ferdinand and Isabella. joint monarchs of Spain; Ferdinand V and Isabella I. William and Mary. One way to test the hypothesis that education-linked genetics influence social-class outcomes is to test if having more education-linked genetics predicts upward social mobility, defined as achieving more socioeconomic success relative to one’s parents.
The primary aim of this study was to determine which measure of SES [family income, Hollingshead Index occupational prestigeand highest parent educational attainment level] had the strongest impact on HRQOL score using the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory PCQLIa disease-specific HRQOL instrument for children and adolescents with congenital or acquired heart disease, after adjusting for patient gender, race, and current cardiac status.
Since this study had all three SES indicators, a thorough test of each measure could be conducted. During the design stage of the validation study, power and sample size estimates were computed.
Because there was no attempt at limiting the number of participants as long as they met the inclusionary criteria, the validation study included proportionally more upper income participants then what would be expected from the general US population.
Construct validity was substantiated by: To have a thorough analysis of SES for this study, we selected three socio-economic indicators available from the PCQLI family background questionnaire: Parents were asked to check the category that best described their combined household yearly income: This question represented the family income variable.
Occupational prestige was measured using the Hollingshead scale. The Hollingshead scale is based upon an the work of A. Even though the Hollingshead Index lacks validity and practicality according to experts in social stratification [ 11 ], it is widely used and hence serves as a benchmark of comparison with other indicators of SES.
We used the following Hollingshead Index categories for our analysis: In the original study design [ 7 ], highest parent educational attainment level was a seven-category variable with the following categories:Socioeconomic measures were grouped as follows: i) measures of young person’s educational opportunities or achievement (ie number of years of schooling, or academic v vocational high school); ii) measures of young person’s occupation or employment (unemployed v employed in USA and Croatia, measure of occupational class in UK); iii) neighbourhood measure of deprivation (the UK .
Sociology: STUDY. PLAY. • Key issue in this analysis of social disorganization is whether to store the equilibrium to its pre-disturbed state or to seed a new and different equilibrium race, and social class that often generate tension and conflict.
Sociological Perspective- Conflict. Karl's Marx's socioeconomic view) emphasizing. The analysis measures industry growth, firm formation, employment, labor availability, wages and venture capital. Economic Development and Cluster Strategy As the economy shifts to the global creative age, communities need a comprehensive plan for each of its industry and talent clusters.
Thesaurus. Definitions of socio-economic class. 1. n people having the same social, economic, or educational status. Synonyms: class, social class, stratum Examples: Ferdinand and Isabella. joint monarchs of Spain; Ferdinand V and Isabella I. William and Mary. Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: Revisited.
New York, Basic Books, , Pp. addresses these criticisms and redeﬁnes the ‘creative class’ as a socioeconomic group whose distinguishing analysis of .
Jun 01, · Groups and individuals differ in societal position by the amount and type of resources held, be these economic, social or political.
Individuals and groups in differing socioeconomic strata are known to have disparate health outcomes, with those in the most disadvantaged groups at .