George Mason University - Online Applied Behavior Analysis Graduate Certificate Any parent can tell you that every child can become fidgety, bored, ill mannered, and disruptive from time to time. Developing the maturity to cope with boredom and inattention is part of the process of growing up. Instead, they are affected by a still-mysterious syndrome that disrupts the process of focus and causes almost uncontrollable outbursts at inappropriate moments. A survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that around 11 percent of American children between the ages of 4 and 17 suffer from this disorder to some degree.
Abstract Objective Several studies have demonstrated differences in omega-3 fatty acid composition in plasma and in erythrocyte membranes in patients with ADHD compared to unaffected controls.
Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can alter central nervous system cell membrane fluidity and phospholipid composition.
Cell membrane fluidity can alter serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission. The goal of this meta-analysis is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children with ADHD. Our primary outcome measure was standardized mean difference in rating scales of ADHD severity.
We conducted secondary analyses to determine the effects of dosing of different omega-3 fatty acids in supplements. Results Ten trials involving children were included in this meta-analysis. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation demonstrated a small, but significant effect in improving ADHD symptoms.
Eicosapentaenoic acid EPA dose within supplements was significantly correlated with supplement efficacy.
We found no evidence of publication bias or heterogeneity between trials. The relative efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was modest compared to currently available pharmacotherapies for ADHD such as psychostimulants, atomoxetine or alpha-2 agonists.
However, given its relatively benign side-effect profile and evidence of modest efficacy, it may be reasonable to use omega-3 fatty supplementation to augment traditional pharmacological interventions or for families who decline other psychopharmacological options.
This decision is often related to concerns over possible short-term side effects or doubts regarding long-term efficacy or effects on development of these medications. In the Western diet omega-6 fatty acids or their precursors e. The results of these trials have been mixed leading to considerable confusion and controversy in the field.
Our goal was to conduct a meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in ADHD. Given the considerable heterogeneity expected in the literature, we also wanted to use meta-regression to examine how the use of different omega-3 fatty acid compositions in supplementation affected treatment efficacy.
Method Search Strategy All meta-analytic methods and sensitivity analyses were specified prior to conducting the meta-analysis but were not registered online.
The results of the search were further limited to randomized control trials and meta-analyses. The references of eligible trials for this meta-analysis as well as any appropriate review articles in this area were additionally searched for citations of further relevant published and unpublished research.
We additionally searched for unpublished or ongoing trials on the cinicaltrials. There were no language limitations. Criteria for Inclusion of Studies in this Review Studies were included in this meta-analysis if they were 1 randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children with ADHD or targeting ADHD symptoms in other children undiagnosed or with comorbid conditions and 2 used a validated rating scale to measure ADHD severity during the trial.
Trials were considered randomized when investigators explicitly represented them as such in the methods section of their published manuscript. Trials in which other psychoactive substances were started at the same time as omega-3 fatty acid supplementation were also excluded.
Meta-Analytic Methods Data extraction was performed on specially designed Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Data were also collected on methods, participants, intervention and outcome measurements, and other relevant attributes and results of the studies.
Any missing information was requested from the study investigators when possible.
The outcome measure selected from each included trial was the difference in mean improvement between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and placebo group in a clinical rating scale measuring ADHD severity over the course of the trial.Share on Pinterest.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that most often occurs in children, but can also be diagnosed in adulthood. The number of children in the United States diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) increased from percent to percent from to , according to an analysis from the University of Iowa published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Network Open.
Report from the third international meeting of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder molecular genetics network. American Journal of Medical Genetics, , Related Links. Explore information on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including signs and symptoms, treatment, current science, and clinical trials.
Have problems sustaining attention in tasks or play, including conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading Children with ADHD need consistent rules they can understand and follow.
Canadian and American guidelines recommend that medications and behavioral therapy be used together as a first-line therapy, except in preschool-aged children. The condition was officially known as attention-deficit disorder (ADD) from to , while before this it was A meta-analysis found less than a third of Symptoms: Problems paying attention, excessive activity, difficulty controlling behavior.
Up to 11% of children get an ADHD diagnosis during their childhood. ADHD symptoms include hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Read about ADHD vs. ADD, treatment, medication, and tests for ADHD in children. Plus, learn about the types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.