The only thing at Auschwitz resembling a human gas chamber was constructed in by Stalin. Not a single diagnosis of death by cyanide poisoning is on record for any German labour camp. No trace whatever remains of the millions of bodies allegedly gassed in the German labour camps. None of the war generals after the war who wrote their memoirs made any allusion to human gas chambers or indeed to any intention to exterminate an ethnic group.
Empire Imperial history was long viewed as merely a variety of British history, thanks to Sir John Seeley's Expansion of England, in which he projected the evolution of its empire as 'the great fact of modern English history', reflecting Britain's contemporary imperial apogee.
However, in the century that has elapsed since that heyday, decolonisation and economic and political globalisation have recast imperial history as the history of empire swhile histories of colonialism have sought to provide a counterpoint to the 'top down' emphasis of old-style imperial narratives.
A Reader MUP,'It is now increasingly common to assert that empire was crucial to the identity of colonizers as well as colonized, that Britain's domestic and overseas histories cannot be disentangled, and that imperial dimensions continue to be relevant in Britain as well as former colonies in the wake of widescale decolonization after the Second World War.
Studies in British Overseas Expansion, Ashgate,'The new history of empire is a history of representation as well as of administration, politics, trade and war. It is also a history that forces the historian to cross boundaries between countries within as well as beyond the British Isles.
Seeley was perhaps less celebratory of British imperial achievement than his reputation allows; he did for example acknowledge the haphazardness of imperial expansion, in observing 'We seem. Marshall notes in his review that 'the outcome of England's and Britain's colonial wars was never predictable and their consequences were rarely what contemporaries intended.
This historiographic turn away from intentional imperialism is very marked in the field of late nineteenth-century European colonial endeavour, which is now more often studied through the lens of domestic politics, than it is considered as a globalising phenomenon.
Expansion overseas was principally a way to paper over internal cracks in the political and social fabric of industrialised nation states'.
The ambivalent status of commercial companies like the East India Company and its Dutch counterpart, the VOC in the territories where they operated, has been subject to extensive study; one of the more unusual investigations has been that of Richard Grove, in his Green Imperialism: Colonial ExpansionTropical Island Edens and the Origins of EnvironmentalismCUP,which Bill Luckin feels ably shows how 'the politics of environmental exchange [throw] revealing light on larger social and political issues - not least the highly complex and ambiguous status, in relation to formal state structures, of the Dutch and English East India Companies.
The Armed Forces of the Colonial Powers, c. Beckett also praises Killingray and his contributors for pointing up two further military consequences of empire - the 'degree of collaboration The tension between imperial endeavour and government, and nationalist aspirations is highlighted by Geoffrey Hosking, in his Russia: People and Empire Harper Collins, ; as Peter Gatrell acknowledges in his review, 'In the process of creating an empire, the existing institutions of community that might otherwise have provided the basis for a "civic sense of nationhood" were weakened and crushed.
By contrast, British urbanisation in the eighteenth century appears to have been positively framed by imperial pursuits and administrative and commercial agendas: Politics, Culture and Imperialism in England CUP,a study of urban politics and opposition in Newcastle and Norwich, summarises 'Trade, empire and war supported the political and cultural infrastructure of the urban renaissance.
In discussing Sebastian Balfour's Deadly Embrace: Economics of empire The economic history of empires may be less fashionable than more culturally-framed approaches, but that has not stopped Niall Ferguson erecting a new history of how 'Britain made the modern world' on a superstructure of what he terms economic 'anglobalisation', rather than upon issues of exploitation, acculturation and oppression.
One of the areas which Porter sees Ferguson as neglecting is the complexity of imperial infrastructures like slavery. As David Richardson remarks in his review of Kenneth Morgan's Slavery, Atlantic Trade and the British Economy, CUP,'The relationship between slavery, colonialism, capital accumulation and economic development has long been an issue that has exercised political economists and economic historians'.
These are far from static debates, as continued attention to the issue of Britain's unique industrialisation in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and the role of slavery in that industrialisation, witnesses.
Richardson is indeed critical of Morgan's failure to explore this in more critical detail, especially since he does acknowledge other European countries' involvement in slavery and the lack of industrialisation that states like France achieved.
Comparative analysis of Dutch and British experiences of imperial development via commercial expansion is the subject of David Ormrod's The Rise of Commercial Empires CUP, ; in his review, Pieter Emmer broadly agrees with Ormrod's thesis that 'Britain seized the imperial initiative by centralizing its economic and governmental institutions at home and by decentralizing its commerce abroad', while suggesting further examples of how the Dutch commerce in the West Indies failed to be as dynamic as British ventures.
Experiencing empire Just as economic histories of empire are increasingly looking more comparatively and critically at the ways in which colonisation and imperial governments were funded and managed, so social and cultural historians have developed new routes into exploring experiences of empire, of colonisers and colonised - through studying contemporary media, cultural imports and exports, gender, education and more.
Disease and medicine is one such route. Disease, Power and Imperialism Yale UP,which investigates the 'role of imperialism in creating the conditions in which major epidemics developed, and the weak responses that colonial governments made to these problems', across continents and chronology, while Watts feels that Worboys' comments show an insufficient appreciation of 'the extent of the cultural impact to say nothing of the disease impact on non-immunes which even a few well-armed colonialists could make on an indigenous culture.
Medicine and Confinement Palgrave,concludes that such a topic can provide 'many useful insights into the broader social and political dynamics of imperialism', by demonstrating 'the growing sense that disease was an imperial problem, rather than merely a local one'.
Another growth area for imperial history is gender. As Clare Midgeley notes in her review of Julia Bush's Edwardian Ladies and Imperial Power Leicester UP,gendered responses to empire were crucial to harness, at a time when 'leading imperialists of the period were increasingly turning their attention away from military conquest - the province of men - towards building a settled, civilising Empire - a project to which women were seen as vital'.
And such approaches are also important for the wider field of gender history: Yet there is some concern among historians that the perspectives from which imperial experiences are drawn are becoming too clearly set as opposites: They rarely write about the great mass who were neither enthusiasts nor critics, but 'went along'.
Colonial decline and decolonisation With the dismantling of empires - whether Roman, Mughal or Soviet - comes the need to study how and why such break-ups occur, as well as critical attention to what happens after imperial administrations have ceased to function.
The consequences of British imperial decline and decolonisation in the middle of the last century are debated in Frank Heinlein's book, British Government Policy and Decolonisation Frank Cass,in particular the management of what is termed 'informal empire'.
Its reviewer, John Kent, commends Heinlein for his 'perceptive analysis of why the formal empire was abandoned' in favour of a more informal network of influence: A resurgence in nationalism is perceived as a natural corollary to 'the movement away from dreams of imperial self-sufficiency' William Gervase Clarence Smith ; at the same time as there has been, in Europe at least, a movement towards greater federation of, and cooperation between states.
People and Empire Harper Collins,it is geography that has in part wrought this change: British Imperial History 'New' And 'Old' In the s it was commonplace to assume that the study of British imperial history, like the British empire itself, was on its last legs.
Students, it was supposed, no longer wished to study an irrelevant past; they were concerned now not with vanished empires but with the history of the peoples who had attained independence and for whom the imperial experience had been a transitory interlude.
The situation at the end of the twentieth century is very different. British imperial history is in apparently robust health, widely studied in one form or another in schools and in higher education. In general, this report sounded an anxious note about the decline in the study of British history.
The history of the British empire was, however, seen as an exception, where interest was still running at a high level. In an uncertain world for would-be academics on both sides of the Atlantic, there seem to be clear indications that university departments feel a need to employ historians of the British empire.Fukuoka | Japan Fukuoka | Japan.
Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin In an attempt to better understand their colonial subjects in those years, officials in the British empire undertook a curious and little-known research project: to collect dreams from the people of South Asia, Africa and the Pacific.
The results were not what they expected. Oct 22, · mba essay editing i a mad dog biting myself for sympathy essay Thesis on impact evaluation and Thesis format imperial college in help to students In both cases, neither improvement in the college imperial format thesis precommunist past, so it could provide, and also to evaluate the accuracy of models that either theory or philosophy of.
Artist and Empire: facing Britain’s Imperial Past at Tate Britain is thus an interesting post-imperial project, ranging far and wide geographically and stretching from the 16 th to 21 st century. Its aim, to quote the brief guide, is to ‘illustrate the complicated histories embodied by objects, inviting us to consider how their status and meaning change over time.
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