Meaning, Nature and Importance of Leadership Article shared by: Meaning, Nature and Importance of Leadership! He may emerge in a group by virtue of his personality characteristics and qualities or by virtue of common consent by group members.
Leader-Member Exchange s Leaders from high-quality relationships with some subordinates but not others. The quality of leader-subordinates relationship affects numerous workplace outcomes. Charismatic Leadership s and s Effective leaders inspire subordinates to commit themselves to goals by communicating a vision, displaying charismatic behavior, and setting a powerful personal example.
Substitutes foe Leadership s Characteristics of the organization, task, and subordinates may substitute for or negate the effects of leadership behaviors. These included the trait approach s and sthe behavioral approach s and sand the contingency or situational approach s and s.
The scientific study of leadership began with a focus on the traits of effective leaders. The basic premise behind trait theory was that effective leaders are born, not made, thus the name sometimes applied to early versions of this idea, the "great man" theory. Many leadership studies based on this theoretical framework were conducted in the s, s, and s.
Leader trait research examined the physical, mental, and social characteristics of individuals. In general, these studies simply looked for significant associations between individual traits and measures of leadership effectiveness.
Physical traits such as height, mental traits such as intelligence, and social traits such as personality attributes were all subjects of empirical research.
The initial conclusion from studies of leader traits was that there were no universal traits that consistently separated effective leaders from other individuals. In an important review of the leadership literature published inRalph Stogdill concluded that the existing research had not demonstrated the utility of the trait approach.
Several problems with early trait research might explain the perceived lack of significant findings. First, measurement theory at the time was not highly sophisticated. Little was known about the psychometric properties of the measures used to operationalize traits.
As a result, different studies were likely to use different measures to assess the same construct, which made it very difficult to replicate findings. In addition, many of the trait studies relied on samples of teenagers or lower-level managers. Early trait research was largely atheoretical, offering no explanations for the proposed relationship between individual characteristics and leadership.
Finally, early trait research did not consider the impact of situational variables that might moderate the relationship between leader traits and measures of leader effectiveness.
As a result of the lack of consistent findings linking individual traits to leadership effectiveness, empirical studies of leader traits were largely abandoned in the s.
Partially as a result of the disenchantment with the trait approach to leadership that occurred by the beginning of the s, the focus of leadership research shifted away from leader traits to leader behaviors. The premise of this stream of research was that the behaviors exhibited by leaders are more important than their physical, mental, or emotional traits.
The two most famous behavioral leadership studies took place at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan in the late s and s. These studies sparked hundreds of other leadership studies and are still widely cited. The Ohio State studies utilized the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire LBDQadministering it to samples of individuals in the military, manufacturing companies, college administrators, and student leaders.
Answers to the questionnaire were factor-analyzed to determine if common leader behaviors emerged across samples. The conclusion was that there were two distinct aspects of leadership that describe how leaders carry out their role.
Two factors, termed consideration and initiating structure, consistently appeared.
Initiating structure, sometimes called task-oriented behavior, involves planning, organizing, and coordinating the work of subordinates. The Michigan leadership studies took place at about the same time as those at Ohio State.
Under the general direction of Rensis Likert, the focus of the Michigan studies was to determine the principles and methods of leadership that led to productivity and job satisfaction.
The studies resulted in two general leadership behaviors or orientations: Leaders with an employee orientation showed genuine concern for interpersonal relations. Those with a production orientation focused on the task or technical aspects of the job.
The conclusion of the Michigan studies was that an employee orientation and general instead of close supervision yielded better results.
Likert eventually developed four "systems" of management based on these studies; he advocated System 4 the participative-group system, which was the most participatory set of leader behaviors as resulting in the most positive outcomes.
One concept based largely on the behavioral approach to leadership effectiveness was the Managerial or Leadership Grid, developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton.
The grid combines "concern for production" with "concern for people" and presents five alternative behavioral styles of leadership. An individual who emphasized neither production was practicing "impoverished management" according to the grid.
If a person emphasized concern for people and placed little emphasis on production, he was terms a "country-club" manager. Conversely, a person who emphasized a concern for production but paid little attention to the concerns of subordinates was a "task" manager.
A person who tried to balance concern for production and concern for people was termed a "middle-of-the-road" manager. Finally, an individual who was able to simultaneously exhibit a high concern for production and a high concern for people was practicing "team management.
The Managerial Grid became a major consulting tool and was the basis for a considerable amount of leadership training in the corporate world.The definition of leadership is quite dynamic, and there are deeper levels and layers that distinguish a great leader in a society.
You may have your own understanding of what makes up a leader, and you can use this to process your leadership essay. Leadership is an important function of management which helps to maximize efficiency and to achieve organizational goals.
The following points justify the importance of leadership in a concern. Initiates action-Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and plans to the. 1 Introduction.
Leadership traits tell who a leader is as leader. Leadership styles tell what a leader does in the process of leading. In this article we are going to explore the leadership styles found in the research of three different researches.
Step 2. Define the concept of leadership as you understand it. After conducting a thorough analysis of your collected information material and coming up with a solid understanding of what constitutes a leader, curve out a definition reflecting your own understanding and interpretation of the subject.
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WHITE PAPER Boundary Spanning Leadership Mission Critical Perspectives from the Executive Suite By: Jeffrey Yip, Chris Ernst, and Michael Campbell. The Lands at Hillside Farms is a historic, non-profit (c)(3) acre educational dairy farm. Leadership: a Definition. According to the idea of transformational leadership, an effective leader is a person who does the following: Creates an inspiring vision of the future. Motivates and inspires people to engage with that vision. Manages delivery of the vision.
Introduction to Management and Leadership Concepts, Principles, and Practices heartoftexashop.com that managers at all levels in an organization do falls outside the purview of the five management functions.