Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th centurywho had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. Portrait of a Young Woman c.
Few historians are comfortable with the triumphalist and western Europe-centred image of the Renaissance as the irresistible march of modernity and progress.
A sharp break with medieval values and institutions, a new awareness of the individual, an awakened interest in the material world… Origins and rise of humanism The term Middle Ages was coined by scholars in the 15th century to designate the interval between the downfall of the Classical world of Greece and Rome and its rediscovery at the beginning of their own century, a revival in which they felt they were participating.
Indeed, the notion of a long period of cultural darkness had been expressed by Petrarch even earlier. Events at the end of the Middle Ages, particularly beginning in the 12th century, set in motion a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations that culminated in the Renaissance.
These included the increasing failure of the Roman Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Empire to provide a stable and unifying framework for the organization of spiritual Characteristics of the renaissance era material life, the rise in importance of city-states and national monarchies, the development of national languages, and the breakup of the old feudal structures.
While the spirit of the Renaissance ultimately took many forms, it was expressed earliest by the intellectual movement called humanism. Humanism was initiated by secular men of letters rather than by the scholar-clerics who had dominated medieval intellectual life and had developed the Scholastic philosophy.
Humanism began and achieved fruition first in Italy. The fall of Constantinople in provided humanism with a major boost, for many eastern scholars fled to Italy, bringing with them important books and manuscripts and a tradition of Greek scholarship.
First, it took human nature in all of its various manifestations and achievements as its subject. Second, it stressed the unity and compatibility of the truth found in all philosophical and theological schools and systems, a doctrine known as syncretism. Third, it emphasized the dignity of man.
In place of the medieval ideal of a life of penance as the highest and noblest form of human activity, the humanists looked to the struggle of creation and the attempt to exert mastery over nature.
Finally, humanism looked forward to a rebirth of a lost human spirit and wisdom. In the course of striving to recover it, however, the humanists assisted in the consolidation of a new spiritual and intellectual outlook and in the development of a new body of knowledge.
The effect of humanism was to help men break free from the mental strictures imposed by religious orthodoxy, to inspire free inquiry and criticismand to inspire a new confidence in the possibilities of human thought and creations.
From Italy the new humanist spirit and the Renaissance it engendered spread north to all parts of Europe, aided by the invention of printing, which allowed literacy and the availability of Classical texts to grow explosively.
Foremost among northern humanists was Desiderius Erasmuswhose Praise of Folly epitomized the moral essence of humanism in its insistence on heartfelt goodness as opposed to formalistic piety.
The intellectual stimulation provided by humanists helped spark the Reformationfrom which, however, many humanists, including Erasmus, recoiled. In the hands of men such as Leonardo da Vinci it was even a sciencea means for exploring nature and a record of discoveries.
Art was to be based on the observation of the visible world and practiced according to mathematical principles of balance, harmony, and perspectivewhich were developed at this time.
Leonardo da VinciSelf-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci in red chalk, c. Nicholas, tempera on wood by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, c. Luca Borghi Palladio, Andrea: Francis of Assisi had rejected the formal Scholasticism of the prevailing Christian theology and gone out among the poor praising the beauties and spiritual value of nature.
His example inspired Italian artists and poets to take pleasure in the world around them. The great poet Dante lived at about the same time as Giotto, and his poetry shows a similar concern with inward experience and the subtle shades and variations of human nature.
Although his Divine Comedy belongs to the Middle Ages in its plan and ideas, its subjective spirit and power of expression look forward to the Renaissance. Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio also belong to this proto-renaissance period, both through their extensive studies of Latin literature and through their writings in the vernacular.
Unfortunately, the terrible plague of and subsequent civil wars submerged both the revival of humanistic studies and the growing interest in individualism and naturalism revealed in the works of Giotto and Dante. The spirit of the Renaissance did not surface again until the 15th century.
Francis of Assisi Receiving the StigmataSt.Characteristics of Renaissance Music. The Renaissance period of music is one of the most diverse and exhilarating in the entire history of music.
When you begin to delve and explore the era more closely you will find a rich variety of musical treasures.
Renaissance art is best characterized as a form focusing on Christian religious imagery using the classical influences of ancient Greek and Roman art and applying scientific and mathematic principles to create depth and realism in works. Renaissance artists were often both scientific and creative.
Renaissance, (French: “Rebirth”) period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages and conventionally held to have been characterized by a surge of interest in Classical scholarship and values. The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents.
The Renaissance (UK: / r ɪ ˈ n eɪ s ən s /, US: / r ɛ n ə ˈ s ɑː n s /) is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages,  and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment to modern history.
The Characteristics of Renaissance Art are So Very Interesting Art works of the Renaissance period are exemplary of the creative genius that existed in that era.
These works have had numerous interpretations over the centuries, but everyone agrees that some characteristics remain synonymous with the period. The Renaissance, or "Rebirth," was a revival of learning and art in Europe after the Dark Ages.
Here are major characteristics of this period: 1. The influence of the Italian scholar Petrarch, who revitalized interest in theclassical thought of the Greeks and Romans. This revival of classical thought was a rejection of the "barbarism" and the "corruptions" of .