Society is not a homogenous entity but is instead internally structured and subdivided by processes of social closure. Some social formations, such as groups, organizations, or institutions, may be open to everybody, provided they are capable of participation, while access to most others is limited due to certain criteria that either allow people to become members or exclude them from membership. Therefore, social closure is a ubiquitous, everyday phenomenon that can be observed in almost every sphere and place in the social world. Members of societies experience closure from the very beginning of their social life.
The first work, "Conflict", takes up the first three chapters, with the final essay examining "the Web of Group Affiliations". Good examples of this can be found in the English compilations of his essays, in particular "The Sociology of Georg Simmel" and "On Indiv This book, translated from the German, should more accurately be viewed as two works published together.
Simmel is interested in the way that the elements of different psychological states and actions that occur in interpersonal interactions the "content" of interactions can be isolated, generalised and used to generate categories of interaction that will then be used to examine social interactions more generally.
These abstract categories of interaction the "form" of interactionsand the way that they contribute to what Simmel calls Vergesellschaftung usually translated into English as "sociation" or "unity"aka the process of forming and maintaining social groups, then become the specific object of study for the science of sociology.
‘The web of group-affiliations’, and indeed the entirety of Simmel's body of work, offers ample evidence that he is not only our first web theorist but that he remains, quite possibly, our most incisive. The Philosophy of Money (Routledge Classics) (Volume 14) [Georg Simmel, David Frisby, Charles Lemert] on heartoftexashop.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. With a new foreword by Charles Lemert 'Its greatness lies in ceaseless and varied use of the money form to unearth and conceptually reveal incommensurabilities of all kinds. Conflict: The Web of Group-Affiliations [Georg Simmel] on heartoftexashop.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The author, Georg Simmel, has been discribed as the Freud of the study of society, describing conflict as part of a dynamic by which some people are drawn together into those uneasy combinations known as groups/5(5).
In "Conflict", Simmel investigates the nature of conflict within interactions and the effect that it has on groups. Notably, his starting point is not how conflict detracts from interaction and sociation, but how it contributes to it. He views the mix of closeness and hostility between individuals not as subtractive but as additive: He examines different kinds of conflict in terms of how they affect interpersonal relationships, how they affect the psychology and development of individuals, and how they affect both the internal relationships within groups and the external relationships that they have with other groups.
The latter aspect of analysis also includes the effect that conflict has on the structure of groups themselves. Acknowledging that conflict can be destructive, Simmel outlines how even conflict that is destructive in some areas can be constructive in others. Acknowledging that competition can harm some individuals if they expend effort but gain nothing, he notes its potential a source of individual improvement, and further notes that even in cases where it is destructive to individual interests, it can still serve the interests of the group overall.
Simmel views society as developing from more "primitive" forms of association to more "evolved" and "advanced" read: Despite the problematic moral attitude taken to the history, his general understanding of differences between contemporary group formation and earlier group formation - at least, in the context of European history - is instructive.
In particular, it is important to understand that membership in a group has an effect on the worldview and the consequent development of the self-identity of its members. For Simmel, a key difference between modernity and earlier times is the number of groups to which a person could belong.
In small, "primitive" societies, people only have 1 group to which they belong, and that group largely defines their identity. In contemporary times, a multiplicity of groups abound, and individuals may voluntarily belong to whichever collection of groups suit their personal tastes.
For Simmel,this proliferation of available group memberships and the individualism characteristic of Western modernity are inextricably related: Simmel examines what he perceives as the historical consequences of this transformation, interpreting it in terms of a transformation from a "formal" grouping pattern, grouped according to "external" criteria, into a "substantive" grouping pattern, according to "real" and "objective" criteria.
The social Darwinist tendencies in his thinking are especially obvious here, but it is worth noting that Simmel distinguished formal from substantive groupings in terms of how they affect group purposes overall: Simmel never achieved the same level of name recognition as Karl Marx and Max Weber a contemporary of Simmelbut his work has nonetheless been quite influential.
His work on group affiliation forms the basis of the influential theories about privacy of Westin and Altman especially Altmanand social networking theorists such as Wellman, Hampton and many others draw heavily on his work. This can be seen from reading "The Web of Group Affiliations" in conjunction with their work, theough curiously the many ideas expressed in "Conflict" have not found nearly as much favour in academia it seems.Conflict / The Web Of Group Affiliations by Simmel, Georg and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at heartoftexashop.com - Conflict / the Web of Group Affiliations by Georg Simmel - AbeBooks.
Georg Simmel is an influential German social theorist. He was especially respected within the 'Chicago School' that dominated American /5(5). A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.
The social network perspective provides a set of methods for analyzing the structure of whole social entities as well as a variety of theories explaining the patterns observed in these structures. Conflict ; The web of group-affiliations.
Free Press, Conflict And The Web Of Group Affiliations George Simmel Limited preview - Conflict Conflict And The Web Of Group Affiliations George Simmel No preview available - Common terms and phrases.
The Philosophy of Money (Routledge Classics) (Volume 14) [Georg Simmel, David Frisby, Charles Lemert] on heartoftexashop.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
With a new foreword by Charles Lemert 'Its greatness lies in ceaseless and varied use of the money form to unearth and conceptually reveal incommensurabilities of all kinds.
Conflict And The Web Of Group Affiliations. George Simmel. Simon and Schuster, Jun 15, - Business & Economics - pages.
1 Review. Two major essays on the dynamics of social organization by the great German philosopher and social theorist Georg Simmel. Conflict And The Web Of Group Affiliations George Simmel No preview available - /5(1).