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Frost Since Appalachia lacks definite physiographical or topographical boundaries, there has been some disagreement over what exactly the region encompasses. The most commonly used modern definition of Appalachia is the one initially defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission in and expanded over subsequent decades.
Campbell published The Southern Highlander and His Homeland in which he modified Frost's map to include counties in 9 states.
A landmark survey of the region in the following decade by the United States Department of Agriculture defined the region as consisting of counties in 6 states. Historian John Alexander Williams, in his book Appalachia: The name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north.
Now spelled "Appalachian", it is the fourth oldest surviving European place-name in the U. A competing and often more popular name was the " Allegheny Mountains ", "Alleghenies", and even "Alleghania. The occasional use of the "sh" sound for the "ch" in the last syllable in northern dialects was popularized by Appalachian Trail organizations in New England in the early 20th century.
The earliest discovered site is the Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Washington County, Pennsylvaniawhich some scientists claim is pre- Clovis culture. Several other Archaic period — BC archaeological sites have been identified in the region, such as the St.
In the 16th century, the de Soto and Juan Pardo expeditions explored the mountains of South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia, and encountered complex agrarian societies consisting of Muskogean-speaking inhabitants.
De Soto indicated that much of the region west of the mountains was part of the domain of Coosaa paramount chiefdom centered around a village complex in northern Georgia. The French based in modern-day Quebec also made inroads into the northern areas of the region in modern-day New York state and Pennsylvania.
By the mid 18th century the French had outposts such as Fort Duquesne and Fort Le Boeuf controlling the access points of the Allegheny River valley and upper Ohio valley after exploration by Celeron de Bienville.
As lands in eastern Pennsylvania, the Tidewater region of Virginia and the Carolinas filled up, immigrants began pushing further and further westward into the Appalachian Mountains.
A relatively large proportion of the early backcountry immigrants were Ulster Scots —later known as " Scotch-Irish "— who were seeking cheaper land and freedom from Quaker leaders, many of whom considered the Scotch-Irish "savages".
Others included Germans from the Palatinate region and English settlers from the Anglo-Scottish border country.
Between andimmigrants trickled into western Pennsylvaniathe Shenandoah Valley area of Virginia, and western Maryland. Thomas Walker's discovery of Cumberland Gap in and the end of the French and Indian War in lured settlers deeper into the mountains, namely to upper east Tennesseenorthwestern North Carolina, upstate South Carolinaand central Kentucky.
Between anda series of treaties with the Cherokee and other Native American tribes opened up lands in north Georgianorth Alabamathe Tennessee Valleythe Cumberland Plateau regions, and the Great Smoky Mountains along what is now the Tennessee-North Carolina border.
Built around during the Cherokee—American warsit is located just south of Chuckey on the banks of the Nolichucky River. Appalachian frontiersmen have long been romanticized for their ruggedness and self-sufficiency.
A typical depiction of an Appalachian pioneer involves a hunter wearing a coonskin cap and buckskin clothingand sporting a long rifle and shoulder-strapped powder horn. Perhaps no single figure symbolizes the Appalachian pioneer more than Daniel Boone —a long hunter and surveyor instrumental in the early settlement of Kentucky and Tennessee.
Like Boone, Appalachian pioneers moved into areas largely separated from "civilization" by high mountain ridges, and had to fend for themselves against the elements. As many of these early settlers were living on Native American lands, attacks from Native American tribes were a continuous threat until the 19th century.
Frontiersmen often bickered with lowland and tidewater "elites" over taxes, sometimes to the point of armed revolts such as the Regulator Movement — in North Carolina.
Two years later, a group of Appalachian frontiersmen known as the Overmountain Men routed British forces at the Battle of Kings Mountain after rejecting a call by the British to disarm. Early 19th century[ edit ] In the early 19th century, the rift between the yeoman farmers of Appalachia and their wealthier lowland counterparts continued to grow, especially as the latter dominated most state legislatures.
People in Appalachia began to feel slighted over what they considered unfair taxation methods and lack of state funding for improvements especially for roads. In the northern half of the region, the lowland "elites" consisted largely of industrial and business interests, whereas in the parts of the region south of the Mason—Dixon linethe lowland elites consisted of large-scale land-owning planters.
Tensions between the mountain counties and state governments sometimes reached the point of mountain counties threatening to break off and form separate states. Inbickering between western Virginia and eastern Virginia over the state's constitution led to calls on both sides for the state's separation into two states.
The proposed state would have been known as "Frankland" and would have invited like-minded mountain counties in Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama to join it. Virginia and Tennessee show the public votes, while the other states show the vote by county delegates to the conventions.
Bythe Whig Party had disintegrated. Sentiments in northern Appalachia had shifted to the pro- abolitionist Republican Party. In southern Appalachia, abolitionists still constituted a radical minority, although several smaller opposition parties most of which were both pro- Union and pro-slavery were formed to oppose the planter-dominated Southern Democrats.
As states in the southern United States moved toward secessiona majority of Southern Appalachians still supported the Union. After Virginia voted to secede, several mountain counties in northwestern Virginia rejected the ordinance and with the help of the Union Army established a separate state, admitted to the Union as West Virginia in However, half the counties included in the new state, comprising two-thirds of its territory, were secessionist and pro-Confederate.
While there were two major theaters of operation in the region—namely the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and present-day West Virginia and the Chattanooga area along the Tennessee-Georgia border—much of the violence was caused by bushwhackers and guerrilla war. The northernmost battles of the entire war were fought in Appalachia with the Battle of Buffington Island and the Battle of Salineville resulting from Morgan's Raid.One Paper MCQs Solved Preparation Material All in One for PPSC FPSC NTS PTS OTS.
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