About fifty percent of the members in a given sample are susceptible to the third-person effectunderestimating their degree of influence. Information is stored in this model as nodes, clustered with related nodes by associated pathways. If one node is activated, nearby nodes are also activated.
Since the mids, when the conflict started, there have been times of severe media censorship affecting the course of the war. Sincewhen a new government led by Chandrika Bandaranayake Kumaratunga took office promising to uphold an Election Manifesto that would assure fundamental freedoms—including freedom of the press—conditions improved markedly, although censorship restrictions were re-imposed in June There is no room for complacency, however, as AI and other bodies like the Physicians for Human Rights have been concerned about the "apparent failure" of the Sri Lankan government to live up to its international commitment to human rights and its failure to bring the perpetrators of past human rights violations to justice.
In the fourth century B. After Buddhism split into Mahayana and Theravada sects in India, the Sinhalese adhered to Theravada, which is the faith that endures to this day among the Sinhalese majority.
As Buddhism disappeared from most of India, it remained strong in Sri Lanka, where the adherents of that faith from mainland southeast Asia particularly from Pegu in lower Myanmar turned for continued guidance. The second most populous ethnic community in Sri Lanka is the Tamils, who trace their ancestry to the influx from Tamilnadu during the British colonial times as plantation laborers.
There are other Tamils who trace their ancestry to groups of Dravidians from South India, who invaded the northern and eastern parts of the island, possibly from the eleventh century A.
In the colonial era, the southern coastal areas first came under Portuguese control in the beginning of the sixteenth century, a situation that remained in place for a century and a half. Most of the Catholics who live in Sri Lanka trace their ancestry to those who were converted to that faith by the Portuguese.
In the Dutch took over from the Portuguese and maintained colonial control until At that time, Great Britain realized the strategic importance of the island for the growing British empire and made Sri Lanka or Ceylon, as it was known then another piece of the still-expanding British dominion.
Britain formalized its possession at the Congress of Vienna in The British administered Sri Lanka separately from their Indian Empire, relinquishing control over the island nation inone year after they left the Indian subcontinent.
The conflict has compelled the government to impose a variety of restrictions on constitutionally guaranteed fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press. At various times, censorship has been imposed on newspapers as well as on the electronic media; journalists have been physically assaulted, a few even killed; and there have been court confrontations between the journalists and the government.
For Tamils, most of whose ancestors who were brought to the country in the nineteenth century by the British to work on the tea estates in the central highlands, the amendment to the Parliamentary Elections Order in Council in eliminating their franchise rights came as a shock.
Before independence, many Tamils had played an important role in the government, largely because of their proficiency in English. The Tamils felt further alienated when Prime Minister S. When he took office, the Official Language Act made the campaign promise a reality.
In and inSri Lanka and India agreed to extend citizenship to some of the Tamils;sapproximatelyobtained Sri Lankan citizenship at that time, while approximatelychose Indian citizenship.
Of the latter, about 85, who accepted the Indian offer but still decided to stay in Sri Lanka became "stateless," without a passport or any official identification; these people were often subject to harassment by the security forces. They could not own land and had no right to vote. Subsequently, as the U.
State Department Report on Human Rights for observed, "the struggle for cultural affirmation, political representation, economic advancement and linguistic parity between Sinhalese and Tamils ended in violence and armed conflict.
This was followed by scores of murders of police officers, politicians, and bureaucrats. The government made some efforts to meet the Tamil demands. For example, the Constitution of recognized Tamil as a "national language" for public administration and the courts, but the Tamils remained dissatisfied because their language was still not recognized for university admissions or public office.
Also, the government promised to establish regional councils with substantial autonomy, but such councils failed to materialize. Bythe conflict assumed ominous proportions with a phenomenal increase in killings on both sides.
Over the next two years, nearlyTamils fled to South India, where the Tamilnadu government housed them in camps. Prabhakaran, who returned to Jaffna and launched a new offensive.
Despite such a murderous civil war, Sri Lanka maintained its parliamentary democracy and, within reasonable restrictions, the fundamental rights of its citizens and an independent judiciary. In the May presidential elections, Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga was voted in as president.
Her peace talks with the LTTE began in October and lasted days, but the talks failed and hostilities resumed. Inthe LTTE mounted a major offensive. In response, the government launched its own campaign called "Jaya Sikurui" or "Victory Assured," its longest 20 months, from May 13,to December 4, and costliest offensive to date.
In the January elections in the northern areas, five Tamil parties participated, including four which had fought against the Sri Lankan army. The LTTE boycotted the elections. The PA and the UNP, the two principal parties in the country, did not participate because they wanted to leave the field to the Tamil parties.
Only 28 percent of registered voters cast their ballot. By mid, the LTTE had regained large parts of the Jaffna Peninsula and control over the jungles behind the lagoons in the eastern province.Mass Media degree, programs, and classes that include brodcasting, radio, television, journalism, photojournalism, advertising, public relations and social media at Stephen F.
Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas. Quality media is the result of meticulous research. MASS MEDIA RESEARCH: AN INTRODUCTION, 10e, shows you how it happens--from content analysis to surveys to experimental research--and then equips you with expert tips on analyzing the media you encounter in your daily life.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass heartoftexashop.com technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets. Broadcast media transmit information electronically, via such media as film, radio, recorded music, or television.
Digital media comprises both Internet and mobile mass communication. In , 50 corporations controlled the vast majority of all news media in the U.S. At the time, Ben Bagdikian was called "alarmist" for pointing this out in his book, The Media heartoftexashop.com his 4th edition, published in , he wrote "in the U.S., fewer than two dozen of these extraordinary creatures own and operate 90% of the mass media" -- .
The role of TV in mass media. The charectristics, functions, etc are mentioned. Role of Television as a Mass Medium 1. - Amulya & Civi 2. Introduction Amongst all the mass media today, television attracts the largest number of viewers. Radio has sound, television content includes both sound and visuals.
This audio visual character of. EWTN is a global, Catholic Television, Catholic Radio, and Catholic News Network that provides catholic programming and news coverage from around the world.