Gunpowder is the earliest known chemical explosive. The uses for gunpowder vary widely. Gunpowder can be used to create bullets or reload used bulletsexplosive devices, rescue signals e. Charcoal and sulfur act as the fuels while saltpeter is the oxidizer more on oxidation below.
Structure[ edit ] Alkali metal alkoxides are often oligomeric or polymeric compounds, especially when the R group is small Me, Et.
In solution, the alkali metal derivatives exhibit strong ion-pairing, as expected for the alkali metal derivative of a strongly basic anion. Structure of the Li4 OBu-t 4 thf 3 cluster, highlighting the tendency of alkoxides to aggregated and bind ether ligands. Preparation[ edit ] From reducing metals[ edit ] Alkoxides can be produced by several routes starting from an alcohol.
Highly reducing metals react directly with alcohols to give the corresponding metal alkoxide. The alcohol serves as an acidand hydrogen is produced as a by-product. A classic case is sodium methoxide produced by the addition of sodium metal to methanol: Another similar reaction occurs when an alcohol is reacted with a metal hydride such as NaH.
The metal hydride removes the hydrogen atom from the hydroxyl group and forms a negatively charged alkoxide ion. From electrophilic chlorides[ edit ] Titanium tetrachloride reacts with alcohols to give the corresponding tetraalkoxides, concomitant with the evolution of hydrogen chloride: The reaction can be accelerated by the addition of a base, such as a tertiary amine.
By weight, the ideal ratio of substances would be 75% potassium nitrate (saltpeter), 15% softwood charcoal, and 10% sulfur. This ratio can differ depending upon what the gunpowder will be used for. This review by Burtscher and Grela highlights the various strategies employed to run olefin metathesis reactions using water as a solvent. 3. Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization and Removal of Catalyst Residue in Aqueous Media. Prepare degassed D 2 O or deionized water by bubbling D 2 O or deionized water with nitrogen gas over 2 h.
By metathesis reactions[ edit ] Many alkoxides are prepared by salt-forming reactions from a metal chloride and sodium alkoxide: Copper I t-butoxide adopts a square structure, a consequence of the preference of Cu I for linear coordination geometry.
By electrochemical processes[ edit ] Many alkoxides can be prepared by anodic dissolution of the corresponding metals in water-free alcohols in the presence of electroconductive additive.
The conductive additive may be lithium chloridequaternary ammonium halide, or other. Some examples of metal alkoxides obtained by this technique: Properties[ edit ] Reactions with alkyl halides[ edit ] The alkoxide ion can react with a primary alkyl halide in an SN2 reaction to form a methyl ether.
Hydrolysis and transesterification[ edit ] Metal alkoxides hydrolyse with water according to the following equation: Other alcohols can be employed in place of water.
In this way one alkoxide can be converted to another, and the process is properly referred to as alcoholysis unfortunately, there is an issue of terminology confusion with transesterification, a different process - see below.
The position of the equilibrium can be controlled by the acidity of the alcohol; for example phenols typically react with alkoxides to release alcohols, giving the corresponding phenoxide.
More simply, the alcoholysis can be controlled by selectively evaporating the more volatile component.
In this way, ethoxides can be converted to butoxides, since ethanol b. In the transesterification process, metal alkoxides react with esters to bring about an exchange of alkyl groups between metal alkoxide and ester.
With the metal alkoxide complex in focus, the result is the same as for alcoholysis, namely the replacement of alkoxide ligands, but at the same time the alkyl groups of the ester are changed, which can also be the primary goal of the reaction. Sodium methoxide, for example, is commonly used for this purpose, a reaction that is relevant to the production of " bio-diesel ".
Formation of oxo-alkoxides[ edit ] Many metal alkoxide compounds also feature oxo- ligands. Oxo-ligands typically arise via the hydrolysis, often accidentally, and via ether elimination: Alkoxides are sterically undemanding and highly basic ligands that tend to bridge metals. Upon the isomorphic substitution of metal atoms close in properties crystalline complexes of variable composition are formed.
The metal ratio in such compounds can vary over a broad range. Depending on process conditions, this thermolysis can afford nanosized powders of oxide or metallic phases.
This approach is a basis of processes of fabrication of functional materials intended for aircraft, space, electronic fields, and chemical industry: Decomposition of mixtures of mono- and heterometallic alkoxide derivatives has also been examined. The structure of tetranuclear rhenium oxomethoxide hydrogen atoms omitted for the sake of simplicity.SPORT 'SPORT' is a 5 letter word starting with S and ending with T Crossword clues for 'SPORT'.
In , Blechert et al. reported the first systematic example of olefin metathesis in air. Grubbs’ 2 nd generation catalyst 15 was compared to an m-isopropoxy-substituted Hoveyda–Grubbs’ 2 nd generation catalyst 41 (Scheme 7), .
Olefin Metathesis in Water at Room Temperature using TPGSM Description TPGSM, DL-α-Tocopherol methoxypolyethylene glycol succinate, is a designer surfactant composed of a lipophilic α-tocopherol moiety and a hydrophilic PEGM chain, joined by an inexpensive succinic acid linker.
Here is a collection of study cards for my AP and General Chemistry classes. There are four cards per page. Each set of cards is saved as an Adobe Acrobat® file.
Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization and Removal of Catalyst Residue in Aqueous Media. Prepare degassed D 2 O or deionized water by bubbling D 2 O or deionized water with nitrogen gas over 2 h. Reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization and the synthesis of water-soluble (co)polymers under homogeneous conditions in organic and aqueous media.