Northern colonies were founded by pilgrims who wanted religious freedom, whereas southern colonies were founded to grant colonists opportunities for land ownership. Their differences in political, social, and economic issues shaped our country into what we are today.
So much land was available, so cheaply, that no one was willing to come to America and sign on to work as a laborer. The dream that drew Europeans across the Atlantic was owning acres of land or making a fortune in a trade or a craft.
It was an attainable dream. Yet workers were needed in the new continent to clear the land, work the soil, build the towns. Because of this acute labor shortage, all the American colonies turned to compulsory labor. In New Netherland, in the s, a free European worker could be hired for guilders a year, plus food and lodging.
In the same time and place, experienced African slaves from the West Indies could be bought outright, for life, for guilders. They provided the basic working force that transformed shaky outposts of empire into areas of permanent settlement. Except for precious metals, almost all major American exports to Europe were produced by Africans.
It was a nebulous condition similar to that of indentured servants. Some Africans brought to America were regarded as "servants" eligible for freedom a certain number of years. Slavery had been on the decline in England, and in most of Europe generally, since the Middle Ages.
That may be why the legal definition of slavery as perpetual servitude for blacks and their children was not immediately established in the New World colonies.
The first official legal recognition of chattel slavery as a legal institution in British North America was in Massachusetts, inwith the "Body of Liberties. Rhode Island enacted a similar law in That means New England had formal, legal slavery a full generation before it was established in the South.
Not until did Maryland declare that all blacks held in the colony, and all those imported in the future, would serve for life, as would their offspring. Virginia followed suit by the end of the decade. New York and New Jersey acquired legal slavery when they passed to English control in the s.
Pennsylvania, founded only infollowed inwith a law for regulation of servants and slaves.
Roughly speaking, slavery in the North can be divided into two regions. New England slaves numbered only about 1, inbut that rose to more than 5, in and about 13, by New England also was the center of the slave trade in the colonies, supplying captive Africans to the South and the Caribbean island.
Black slaves were a valuable shipping commodity that soon proved useful at home, both in large-scale agriculture and in ship-building. African slavery in the middle colonies had been actively encouraged by the Dutch authorities, and this was continued by the British.
Both the Dutch and English colonists in the North preferred to get their slaves from other New World colonies rather than directly from Africa. Direct imports from Africa were considered too dangerous and difficult.
Both causes contributed to the adjective often used to advertise West Indies slaves being sold in the North: Estates of 50 or 60 slaves were rare, though they did exist in the Hudson Valley, eastern Connecticut, and the Narragansett region of Rhode Island.
But the Northern climate set some barriers to large-scale agricultural slavery. The long winters, which brought no income on Northern farms, made slaves a burden for many months of the year unless they could be hired out to chop wood or tend livestock.
In contrast to Southern plantation slavery, Northern slavery tended to be urban. Slaveholding reflected social as well as economic standing, for in colonial times servants and retainers were visible symbols of rank and distinction.
The leading families of Massachusetts and Connecticut used slaves as domestic servants, and in Rhode Island, no prominent household was complete without a large staff of black retainers.
New York's rural gentry regarded the possession of black coachmen and footmen as an unmistakable sign of social standing. In Boston, Philadelphia, and New York the mercantile elite kept retinues of household slaves. Their example was followed by tradesmen and small retailers until most houses of substance had at least one or two domestics.
Some maintain that New England slaves generally were held in situations where they did not do real work, such as might be done by a white laborer, and that many, if not most, of the New England slaves were held without economic justification, working as house servants or valets.
Even in Pennsylvania, the mounting Pennsylvania Quaker testimony against slavery in the s and '60s was in large part aimed against the luxuriousness and extravagance of the Friends who had domestic slaves. But other historians who have studied the matter in some depth Greene, McManus, Melish make a forceful case for slave labor being an integral part of the New England economy.
And even those slaves who did the arduous work required in a colonial household freed their white owners to pursue careers in law, religion, medicine or civil service.
Yet this also happened in the North. Not only was slavery sanctioned by the God of the Old Testament, it was a positive duty of his chosen people in the New World, because it brought the Gospel to the pagans of Africa.Related Essays: Differences and Similarities Between the Southern and New England Colonies View Paper .
Southern and New England Colonies When a comparison is made between the southern and northern colonies there is a lot that can be considered. When the thirteen colonies were finally established in America, they were divided into three geographic areas.
Two of them were the New England Colonies (Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts) and the Southern colonies (South Carolina, North . Northern, Middle, and Southern Colonies Compare and Contrast Justin Baker R. Brogan US History Midterm Essay #1: Question #1: Northern, Middle, and Southern Colonies Compare and Contrast America has always been a land of diversity but also a land of unity.
Northern Poverty and Southern Slavery Uploaded by planotJ on Oct 26, This paper compares the lives of poor northern women with the lives of southern slaves.
Compare and Contrast the Northern,Middle,Southern colonies. Transcript of Compare and Contrast the Northern,Middle,Southern colonies. Compare and Contrast the Northern,Middle,and Southern colonies Northern Colony Northern colony is .
In searching for early causes for the American Civil War, many historians point to the dramatic differences between the Northern and Southern colonies in the late 17th and 18th centuries.