You can help by adding to it. February Home environment[ edit ] The environment of low SES children is characterized by less dialogue from parents, minimal amounts of book reading, and few instances of joint attentionthe shared focus of the child and adult on the same object or event, when compared to the environment of high SES children.
Bibliography Background Education, occupational status and income are the most widely used indicators of socioeconomic status SES.
Though moderately correlated, each of these measures can capture distinctive aspects of social position, and they are not interchangeable. While income represents a flow of resources over some period of time, wealth captures the stock of assets at a given point in time, and thus economic reserves.
However the importance of wealth as a source of economic security may vary among societies e. Income and wealth are positively correlated, but they are not interchangeable, as shown by the example of an elderly person with a modest fixed income but substantial accumulated wealth.
Evidence of association between occupational status and adult mortality It is a common finding that mortality has a strong inverse association with income. Many studies however have indicated that the relationship of socioeconomic position to health, especially when indexed by income, is monotonic, but not linear.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study NLMS they found that a two-sloped function better described the association between income and mortality than did a linear function for both men and women.
The impact of fluctuations in income on mortality risk has received relatively little attention but is an important topic.
McDonough et alusing the U. Longitudinal Panel Study of Income Social economical status 2012 PSID of adults 45 years and older, found that persistent low income was a particularly strong determinant of mortality.
They also showed however that income instability was an important predictor of mortality particularly among middle-income adults. They suggest that income fluctuations may be more normative at lower incomes, or may be ameliorated by community support or public aid, while at higher levels of income, individuals may have accumulated assets, that is, economic reserves that can compensate for lost income.
Middle-income adults, on the other hand, are less likely to have either of these resource types available to help bridge times of income instability.
The experience of downward mobility in the American middle class" for a qualitative treatment of this topic. Wealth is often an indicator of income over the life course, and thus may be a better indicator of overall socioeconomic status than is contemporaneous income.
Households with comparable lifetime incomes may differ on sources of wealth e. Retired and elderly individuals may have low pension or social security incomes but substantial accumulated wealth. Household wealth and asset ownership: US Bureau of the Census. Current Population Reports, Ser.
In addition, the relationships of income and wealth with these health outcomes are highly nonlinear, with the greatest influence of these SES factors shown in the poverty and near-poverty population.
Other studies that have used wealth or permanent income in health research in the U. Wealth can also be assessed by classifying people according to household assets such as whether the family home is owned or rented, and whether there is a car or garden.
In Britain, markers of low available income, such as not being a home owner or having access to a car, are strongly associated with increased mortality risk. The above mentioned finding by McDonough et al that income instability has its greatest impact on the health of those at middle income levels is consistent with the buffering effect that accumulated assets can provide.
Knowledge of household income may not be predictive of family purchasing power or the income available to individual household members.
Studies have shown that goods and services available in lower income neighborhoods and African-American neighborhoods are often poorer in quality and costlier than those available in higher income and white neighborhoods Kaplan, ; Troutt, Gender may also affect the availability of income within the household.
Studies have shown that poor and working class family mothers may skimp on using available money for their own needs to provide first for the needs of their children and husband Krieger et al. Research establishing the gradient relationship between SES and health is primarily cross-sectional, and the causal direction cannot be firmly established.Socioeconomic status (SES) is a composite measure of an individual’s economic and sociological standing.
It is a complex assessment measured in a variety of ways that account for a person’s work experience and economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
economic status (SES): education, house ownership, and annual household expenditure. We also examines the correlations between mental health conditions and the elderly people’s individual-level social capital, measured with . I would say that socioeconomic status is a matter of fact based on income, job description, current social status derived from the other two factors.
Social class is a matter of upbringing and education, where in the range of cultures based on socioeconomic class you perceive yourself and others perceive you to be. 2. Introduction.
Socioeconomic status is one of those terms typically learned in a seventh grade social studies or civics class and then used in college term papers to subtly suggest a deep understanding of how society works, or perhaps how it should work.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) children perform on average worse on intelligence tests than children from higher SES backgrounds, but the developmental relationship between intelligence and SES has not been adequately investigated.
2. Introduction. Socioeconomic status is one of those terms typically learned in a seventh grade social studies or civics class and then used in college term papers to subtly suggest a deep understanding of how society works, or perhaps how it should work.