The purpose of this experiment was to identify the specific element in a metal powder sample by determining its crystal structure and atomic radius. These were determined using the Debye-Sherrer powder camera method of X-ray diffraction. A good introduction also provides whatever background theory, previous research, or formulas the reader needs to know.
This is based on common mistakes I have observed over a period of time. That is, technical writing in general. While a google search on the topic may churn out many hits, the following is tailored for IIT Kanpur students in particular. I will first mention some general guidelinesthen the structure of the report.
Based on these, I will recommend a possible strategy for producing high-quality reports which have high potential for being published.
General Guidelines These are some general things you should know before you start writing. I will try to answer the questions of the purpose of report writing, and the overall approach as well. Purpose of a report: This is the central goal of report-writing.
A report which is written for the sake of being written has very little value. Before you start writing your report, you need to have in mind the intended audience. This has value, but only short-term. The next broader possibility is that your report is readable by your peers or your juniors down the line.
This has greater value since someone else can continue on your work and improve it, or learn from your work. In the best case possibility, your report is of publishable quality. That is, readable and useful for the technical community in general.
This can proceed in roughly three stages of continual refinement of details. First write the section-level outline, Then the subsection-level outline, and Then a paragraph-level outline. The paragraph-level outline would more-or-less be like a presentation with bulleted points. It incorporates the flow of ideas.
Once you have the paragraph-level flow of ideas, you can easily convert that into a full report, by writing out the flow of ideas in full sentences.
While doing the paragraph-level outline, think also about a figures, b tables, and c graphs you will include as part of the report at various stages. You will find that many things can be better explained by using simple figures at appropriate places.
Another thing to nail-down while doing the paragraph-level outline is the terminology you will be using. I will talk about these in more detail after talking about the overall report structure.
Structure of a report The following should roughly be the structure of a report. Note that these are just guidelines, not rules. You have to use your intelligence in working out the details of your specific writing. These are the most-read parts of a report. This is how you attract attention to your writing.
The title should reflect what you have done and should bring out any eye-catching factor of your work, for good impact. The abstract should be short, generally within about 2 paragraphs words or so total.
The abstract should contain the essence of the report, based on which the reader decides whether to go ahead with reading the report or not. It can contain the following in varying amounts of detail as is appropriate: Most reports start with an introduction section.
This section should answer the following questions not necessarily in that order, but what is given below is a logical order.
What is the setting of the problem? This is, in other words, the background. In some cases, this may be implicit, and in some cases, merged with the motivation below.Steps for Building a Solid Reflection.
Once you've gathered all your thoughts, put them in a cohesive order. If your reflections have a time theme, such as how you came to change your mind on a subject due to the class readings and discussions, create an outline based on the evolution of . Support for Writing Laboratory Reports.
This guide is designed for undergraduate science, technology and engineering students. In your report you should aim to provide a factual and accurate account of an investigation: You should write in complete, grammatically correct sentences. ANALYSIS AND REPORT WRITING TIPS Most Important Things to Remember About Data Analysis simple terms, about what you are trying to say, and then write that.
Use complete sentences and standard English grammar conventions. You can rely some on bullets and be limited in your transitions, but be sure action steps or Issues for Further. ably find it helpful to read over the entire chapter the first time you are asked to write a lab-report section (to get some sense of how the pieces of a lab report fit together).
At the end of the semes-ter, when you will write a full report, you should go back and read the entire chapter again. Using marshmallows as an example, allows learners to understand the key steps to write up a practical. Very useful with the new GCSE Syllabus.
* Write a paragraph (complete sentences) which explains what you did in the lab as a short summary. * You may choose to add details (step-by-step) of your procedure in such a way that anyone else could repeat the experiment.