Official war artists were commissioned by the British Ministry of Information and the authorities of other countries.
Eating Irish Moss Desperate to get their hands on something sterile that would keep wounds clear of infection, doctors started getting creative. They tried everything from irrigating the wounds with chlorine solutions to creating bandages infused with carbolic acid, formaldehyde or mercury chloride, with varying degrees of success.
What were the Allied Powers to do? A Scottish surgeon-and-botanist duo had an idea: Yes, moss, the plant. Also known as sphagnum, peat moss thrives in cold, damp climates like those of the British Isles and northern Germany. But humans have also used it for at least 1, years to help heal their injuries.
It continued to be used sporadically when battles erupted, including during the Napoleonic and Franco-Prussian wars.
In the war's early days, eminent botanist Isaac Bayley Balfour and military surgeon Charles Walker Cathcart identified two species in particular that worked best for staunching bleeding and helping wounds heal: But desperate times called for desperate measures.
Or, as they wrote: Field surgeons seemed to agree. Sphagnum moss can hold up to 22 times its own weight in liquid, making it twice as absorptive as cotton. A Natural and Cultural History of Mosses.
Sphagnum moss also has antiseptic properties. For bogs, the acidity has remarkable preservative effects—think bog bodies—and keeps the environment limited to highly specialized species that can tolerate such harsh environments.
For wounded humans, the result is that sphagnum bandages produce sterile environments by keeping the pH level around the wound low, and inhibiting the growth of bacteria. A vial of dried Sphagnum that would've been used for making bandages in WWI. National Museum of American History Unlikely savior: The remarkable properties of spaghnum moss help preserve long-dead bodies, sequester carbon and even heal wounds.
Communities around the United Kingdom and North America organized outings to collect moss so the demand for bandages could be met. Ayres writessphagnum was just as popular on the other side of the battle lines. Civilians and even Allied prisoners of war were conscripted to gather the moss.
Their absorbency was remarkable.
In part, because the immense amount of labor required to collect it, Anderson says although manufacturers in the U.
And while humans are no longer picking them for bandages, scientists fear that bogs and swamplands could be drained or negatively impacted by agriculture and industry, or the peat will be used for biofuel. Besides their role in global climate change, peatlands are rich ecosystems in their own right, boasting rare species like carnivorous plants.
Editor's Note, May 1, It also featured a photo of a non-Spaghnum moss species. She has previously written for The Atlantic, Salon, Nautilus and others.
She is also the author of The Last Voyageurs:Architecture changed as a result of industrialization. Architects stopped looking at previous methods of building and focused more on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes, meaning steel beams and concrete were often exposed rather than hidden as in older architecture.
After World War II, culture, especially American, changed quite a bit. Radio's were extremely popular, as well as phones, and many people felt more connected to others and even the outside world. After the war, soldiers return from the front, and competing job with the black people. Racial riots broke out in the north.
The increase the Harlem renaissance. A lot of writers and artist saw this culture movement as a opportunity of uplifting the black culture, and gained more right to the African American. The aftermath of World War 1 saw drastic changes in politics, culture, and social across Europe, Asia, America, and Africa.
European life in itself had changed greatly due to the devastation, loss, and change in the governments. However, the change in society was greatly influenced by art. Art. We find the look unsettling today, yet social convention of , when FDR was photographed at age 2 1/2, dictated that boys wore dresses until age 6 or 7, also the time of their first haircut.
On July 4, —just a few days after America’s victorious fighting debut at Belleau Wood had helped turned the tide of the fourth German offensive of that year—French soldiers and civilians.